代码托管

  • https://bitbucket.org/
  • github

alias

  • https://git.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Aliases#Aliases
  • 在~/.gitconfig加入,

[alias]
    st = status
    ci = commit
    br = branch
    co = checkout
    df = diff
    dc = diff --cached
    lg = log -p
    who = shortlog -s --
	

基础教程

  • http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/index.zh.html
  • http://git-scm.com/book/zh/

彩色的git输出

git config color.ui true

建立git服务

git init --bare

git log

git log --reverse shows commits from start

code review

$ git log --until=2013-09-12                    # 假设今天是2013-09-13,此命令可以找出昨天最后一次的commit号,假设是abcdef
$ git diff abcdef                               # 此命令就可以查看今天一整天所做的修改
$ git diff abcdef > code-reveiw-20130913.diff   # 将diff后的结果输入到code-review-20130913.diff文件,方便review

### 写成了一个rake task

namespace :git do
  task :diff do
    tt = Time.now
    yt = Time.now - (60 * 60 * 24)
    ys = "\"#{yt.strftime('%F')} 23:59:59\""
    ts = tt.strftime('%Y%m%d')
    log = `git log --until=#{ys} -1`
    commit = log.split("\n")[0].split(' ')[1]
    diff = `git diff #{commit}`
    puts diff
    File.open("code_review_#{ts}.diff", 'w+') {|f| f.write diff }
  end
end

执行 rake git:diff 就能对今天的代码进行 review 了

简明reference

  • http://gitref.org/

推荐的.gitignore

# Compiled source #
###################
*.com
*.class
*.dll
*.exe
*.o
*.so

# Packages #
############
# it's better to unpack these files and commit the raw source
# git has its own built in compression methods
*.7z
*.dmg
*.gz
*.iso
*.jar
*.rar
*.tar
*.zip

# Logs and databases #
######################
*.log
*.sql
*.sqlite

# OS generated files #
######################
.DS_Store
.DS_Store?
._*
.Spotlight-V100
.Trashes
ehthumbs.db
Thumbs.db

git init –bare 创建一个裸仓库

  • 参考: http://git-scm.com/book/zh/%E6%9C%8D%E5%8A%A1%E5%99%A8%E4%B8%8A%E7%9A%84-Git-%E5%9C%A8%E6%9C%8D%E5%8A%A1%E5%99%A8%E4%B8%8A%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2-Git

mkdir fchk-api-doc.git
cd fchk-api-doc.git
git init --bare --shared

# 推送代码到远程裸仓库
git remote add fchk-staging ssh://staging.fchk.com/home/jgm/git/fchk-api-doc.git/
git push fchk-staging master

## setting username
$ git config --global user.name "Billy Everyteen"
# Set a new name
$ git config --global user.name
# Verify the setting
# Billy Everyteen

utf-8支持

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5854967/git-msysgit-accents-utf-8-the-definitive-answers
git config [--global] core.quotepath off
git config [--global] i18n.logoutputencoding utf8
git config [--global] i18n.commitencoding utf8
git config [--global] --unset svn.pathnameencoding

回滚到某个commit

git reset --hard commit

实例:

git reset --hard b0ae0c3e5e0430853430fc71a4ec3756abe2b2b9

查看某个文件的历史变化

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/278192/view-the-change-history-of-a-file-using-git-versioning
$ gitk [filename]
$ git log --follow -p file

修复未提交文件中的错误(重置)

  • http://gitbook.liuhui998.com/4_9.html 在工作目录做了一些糟糕的修改,但是还没有提交,想恢复到上次提交时的状态
$ git reset --hard HEAD

签出特定的commit

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2007662/rollback-to-an-old-commit-using-git 我发现rails_admin的交互突然不能用了,没有发现js错误,所以我想知道是从那个commit开始出现这种问题的。
$ git checkout [revision] .

调试过历史版本后,想恢复到最近提交的版本,使用:

$ git reset --hard HEAD

a hacker’s guide to git

  • http://wildlyinaccurate.com/a-hackers-guide-to-git

rebase

$ git rebase master foo

With the format git rebase , the rebase command will take all of the commits from and play them on top of one by one

修改 commit message

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/179123/edit-an-incorrect-commit-message-in-git

实际例子

git commit --amend 或者 git commit --amend -m "New commit message"

Changing the message of a commit that you've already pushed to your remote branch

git push <remote> <branch> --force

# Or

git push <remote> <branch> -f

配置

  • git config -l 列出当前 config
  • /etc/gitconfig 文件:系统中对所有用户都普遍适用的配置。若使用 git config 时用 –system 选项,读写的就是这个文件。
  • ~/.gitconfig 文件:用户目录下的配置文件只适用于该用户。若使用 git config 时用 –global 选项,读写的就是这个文件。
  • 当前项目的 Git 目录中的配置文件(也就是工作目录中的 .git/config 文件):这里的配置仅仅针对当前项目有效。每一个级别的配置都会覆盖上层的相同配置,所以 .git/config 里的配置会覆盖 /etc/gitconfig 中的同名变量。

实际例子

~/.gitconfig

[user]
  name = baya
  email = kayak.jiang@gmail.com
[alias]
  st = status
  ci = commit
  br = branch
  co = checkout
  df = diff
  dc = diff --cached
  lg = log -p
  who = shortlog -s --

[core]
  quotepath = off
[i18n]
  logoutputencoding = utf8
  commitencoding = utf8
[push]
   default = simple

ogproj/.git/config

[core]
	repositoryformatversion = 0
	filemode = true
	bare = false
	logallrefupdates = true
	ignorecase = true
	precomposeunicode = true
[remote "origin"]
	url = git@github.com:MySite/ogproj.git
	fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
[branch "master"]
	remote = origin
	merge = refs/heads/master
[branch "v5"]
	remote = origin
	merge = refs/heads/v5
[user]
        name = Jim
        email = tank@mysite.com
		

基础命令

创建分支

$ git checkout -b 'new_branch'

stash

  • git stash list

  • git stash drop stash@{0}

  • git stash pop

删除远程分支

$ git push origin :newfeature

删除本地分支

$ git branch -d newfeature

撤销 merge

$ git merge --abort

fetch remote branch

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9537392/git-fetch-remote-branch

$ git checkout --track origin/daves_branch

get remote branch

$ git fetch
$ git checkout --track remote_branch

回滚到某个 commit

  • http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4114095/revert-to-a-previous-git-commit

$ git reset --hard 0d1d7fc32

合并远程分支

$ git fetch

$ git merge remote_br_xxxx